Central banking refers to the establishment and management of a central bank by a country's government or monetary authority. A central bank is a financial institution responsible for overseeing a nation's monetary system and implementing monetary policy. Its primary objective is to achieve and maintain price stability, which generally involves controlling inflation and promoting economic growth and stability.

Computational Economics is a field of research in which economists and computer scientists use software-based methods to solve analytical problems in order to make accurate predictions about the economy. Since economic formulas and algorithms rarely make sense in the real world, computational economics can help people understand the intricacies of systems such as the financial market.

Econometrics is a popular discipline that integrates statistical tools and modeling for economic data, and it is frequently used by policymakers to forecast the result of policy changes. Like with other statistical tools, there are many possibilities for error when econometric tools are used carelessly. Econometricians must be careful to justify their conclusions with sound reasoning as well as statistical inferences.

Agricultural economics is an applied field of economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing the production and distribution of food and fiber products. Agricultural economics began as a branch of economics that specifically dealt with land usage. It focused on maximizing the crop yield while maintaining a good soil ecosystem. 

International economics is concerned with the effects upon economic activity from international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the international institutions that affect them. It seeks to explain the patterns and consequences of transactions and interactions between the inhabitants of different countries, including trade, investment and transaction.

International finance (also referred to as international monetary economics or international macroeconomics) is the branch of financial economics broadly concerned with monetary and macroeconomic interrelations between two or more countries.International finance examines the dynamics of the global financial system, international monetary systems, balance of payments, exchange rates, foreign direct investment.

Health economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behavior in the production and consumption of health and healthcare. Health economics is important in determining how to improve health outcomes and lifestyle patterns through interactions between individuals, healthcare providers and clinical settings.